Under the Hood: Building a New College Scorecard with Students

Cross-posted from the White House Blog.

Summary: How the U.S. Digital Service worked with students, families, schools, developers and teams across the federal government to rebuild the new College Scorecard tool.

My niece is a smart kid.  I’m biased, but I swear she is.  And just as I started working on the College Scorecard project as the U.S. Digital Service’s new Chief Digital Service Officer at the Department of Education, I got a call from her – she was trying to decide where to go to school. As we were building this tool, wading through this data, and working with all the top college choice tools already in the market, I was also helping her navigate her college choice process. Where should she go? What was the best value? What is value when it comes to schools? This may be the single most important investment of her life, and even she was struggling to find clear, reliable data on critical questions.

Today, the Department of Education is proud to announce new steps to help students, parents and advisers make better college choices, including:

  1. A new College Scorecard redesigned with direct input from students, families, and their advisers to provide the clearest, most accessible, and reliable national data on college cost, graduation, debt, and post-college earnings. This new College Scorecard can empower Americans to rate colleges based on what matters most to them; to highlight colleges that are serving students of all backgrounds well; and to focus on making a quality, affordable education within reach.
  2. New, comprehensive and updated data on higher education institutions. For the first time, the public can access the most reliable and comprehensive data on students’ outcomes at specific colleges, including former students’ earnings, graduates’ student debt, and borrowers’ repayment rates. These data are also available for various sub-groups, like first generation and Pell students. Because these data will be published through an open application programming interface (API), researchers, policymakers, and members of the public can customize their own analysis of college performance more quickly and easily.
  3. Customized tools for students, with 11 organizations already using these data to launch new tools. Today, ScholarMatch, StartClass and College Abacus, three college search resources, are using this new, unique data that help students search for, compare, and develop a list of colleges based on the outcomes data that the Department is making available to the public for the first time. PayScale, which offers consumers a large salary database, will use the new data to analyze various colleges’ return-on-investment for different student groups while InsideTrack, which is a team of coaches and consultants working to improve student outcomes, will use the data to develop and implement effective student-centered initiatives. ProPublica, a non-profit investigative journalism newsroom, has built a tool with the open data to help consumers make more informed decisions.

This work was truly collaborative team effort, with teams from the Departments of Education and of the Treasury, White House Domestic Policy Council, Council of Economic Advisors, and Office of Management and Budget, the General Services Administration’s 18F and the U.S. Digital Service.

Here’s how we did it:

Build with, not for, users.

We knew what we needed to do – make people’s lives better by providing them the tools and information to make more informed choices and get the best bang for buck college choice. And we thought – exactly how do people make choices when deciding on college?

So we went out and asked them..

Following our practice of focusing on user needs, the College Scorecard team first spent time engaging directly with users at every single step in the project. Some of our favorite conversations were when we talked to high school students in Washington, D.C.’s Anacostia neighborhood and their excellent guidance counselor who told us how he “hacks” the process to make sure every one of his students gets an acceptance letter from a college, and feels that rush of possibility.

We met with 4-H kids from across the country who were frustrated by inaccurate data on the college search tools they use to find the best agricultural programs today. We listened to a mom from Maryland explain that she shopped for schools based on the lowest annual actual cost to become a medical technician – her dream. We even called a young woman who works as a college advisor in the Bronx, who had written a letter to the President with her ideas of how to make higher education data and tools work even better for her students. We also visited the newsrooms of data journalists to understand how they used higher education open data to report on how well schools were serving students.

We build on the hard work of the Department of Education; previously, they met with thousands of stakeholders from the higher education community to learn about their concerns and ideas and hopes for how we could help students and families make a more informed decision.

Be agile.

Based on this research, we made the cheapest, fastest prototype of the College Scorecard possible, based on what we heard. We knew it needed to be mobile-first, simple, and easy to customize. That prototype ended up being a homemade, cardboard iPhone with slips of paper with wireframes of what the tool could look like. It probably cost less than a cup of coffee to produce.

Scorecard Demo

College Scorecard

We also went to work with the federal government’s data from over 7,000 schools, going back 18 years, putting it into an open API (Application Programming Interface) that fuels the College Scorecard website. We wanted to make the data as usable by software developers and data scientists. The API allows anyone to create tools and insights that will help prospective college students make these important decisions.

We worked with a group of software developers and data scientists to be beta users of the data – to make sure it worked well and was clear. In addition to the groups I mentioned above, whose work is live today, we’re also excited to see the tools and enhancements that Niche, College Greenlight, Noodle, Tractus Insight (HelloCollege) and I’m First! are working on – and are looking forward to what many others will be able to do with the data that’s now open and available.

What’s in the data?

With nearly 2,000 data points for over 7,000 schools going back 18 years, there’s a lot of information in the College Scorecard dataset. The dataset includes information from the Department of the Treasury on student loan repayment rates, and the IRS on post-college income. When we can combine new data from Departments of Education and of the Treasury with data that colleges already report on graduation rates, cost, and other descriptions about their school, the College Scorecard allows the public to distinguish colleges based on the outcomes of their students.

Some of the information students, their parents or guardians, and advisors will be able to see includes:

  • Employment outcomes: The College Scorecard contains the first-ever comprehensive and reliable data on post-college earnings for students who attended all types of undergraduate institutions, based upon tax records. While increased earnings are only one of many reasons to go to college, many students consider their future career prospects when making an investment in their education. Specifically, the new Scorecard includes: (1) the proportion of former students earning over $25,000, which is the average earnings of high school graduates, six years after enrolling and (2) the median earnings of students 10 years after they enroll in college.
  • Student-level outcomes data: The College Scorecard publishes data from the National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS), which ED has used to manage and track grants and loans since the 1990s. The data can be used to produce a variety of new institutional performance metrics including (1) median cumulative loan debt, (2) repayment rate, and (3) completion and transfer rates, all by various student sub-groups.

The demographic data includes things you might expect, like ethnicity or gender, as well as how many students are the first in their family to attend college, students’ family income, and the rates at which students are taking out student loans or grants. We should point out that the Department of Education ensured the data protects the privacy of all students by aggregating up to the institution level and only reporting information for schools with enough students. Rest assured that no one can distinguish any individuals from the data. With these data, we can better understand how well schools do for students.

And this is just the beginning. By giving developers access to an API, even more customized tools will be created, providing students more options than ever before to find the right school for them.

What this means for the marketplace

As the President said in his weekly address,

“The status quo serves some colleges and the companies that rank them just fine. But it doesn’t serve our students well – and that doesn’t serve any of us well. There are colleges dedicated to helping students of all backgrounds learn without saddling them with debt. We should hold everybody to that standard. Our economic future depends on it.” – President Barack Obama, Weekly Address, September 12, 2015

When consumers have more access to information, it means they can make better financial decisions for themselves and their families. This is a huge win for students, families, and the marketplace — open data like this ensures that both colleges and students are operating in a more fair, competitive, and transparent environment.

A college degree is the best investment students can make in their future, and the public now has more data than ever to make one of the most important decisions students face in their lifetimes.

Lisa Gelobter is the Chief U.S. Digital Service Officer at the U.S. Department of Education.


  1. I really appreciate the extensive effort to put together this information tool for our nation and its young people. Somewhat of a monumental task to gather this data and present it in a user friendly way. High marks for the visual interface.

    I don’t think there’s any quick, easy way to gauge the value of any institution of higher Ed. What’s more important is the fit to the specific student.

    There seems to be some major issues with the scorecard’s approach that simply do not provide an accurate picture of the performance of each college.

    1. If a student attends a college 10 years ago for a BS in Basket Weaving. Can’t find a job. Then goes back to school years later somewhere else for an education that leads directly to good employment, the scorecard would show the current earnings under the Basket Weaving school. Seems like that’s a poor representation of the 2 college’s respective value, doesn’t it?

    2. The scorecard doesn’t distinguish between different courses of study within an institution. Engineering graduate data is lumped together with all other grads to find a median income figure. This approach poorly represents both ends of the spectrum. High value majors are not given the credit they deserve and low value majors are given more credit than they’ve earned.

    3. The scorecard doesn’t say whether the income is from a job related to the education. If a graduate of a “general studies” program winds up making a high income on a crab fishing boat 10 years later, the scorecard would incorrectly infer that the “general studies” degree had something to do with the current income. Not sure that’s an accurate portrayal.

    Lots of other concerns with the true nature of causal relationships from all of these data. However, the accomplishment of the tool is still something you all should be proud of. I just wish there was more overt disclaimers over the real meaning of the data. It is very easy to draw incorrect conclusions from the scorecard information.

    Thank you.

  2. Why don’t you cross-reference your earnings file (tax data) with the National Student Clearinghouse to ensure *only GRADUATES* of an institution are used to calculate the earnings figure. Do you really think it’s fair to a school to publish a single figure that everyone assumes (because it’s not clear) represents the earnings of *graduates* when it is not clear at all that number is for everyone (who received federal financial aid) who enrolled during a specific period (also not made clear) regardless of whether they (1) graduated from that school or (2) graduated from any school at all?

    You could cross reference your data first with the NSC (for 96% or so of schools) and ensure only graduates of the school are used to calculate earnings.

  3. if the site is meant to be agile, how come you can’t fix within a short time any broken link to a school’s website once you’ve been notified of the problem with the link?

  4. Being a DC resident, and looking at 4 year state schools (as we do not have one to speak of) , the cost calculator would be more helpful if there was away to see average out of state costs as well.

  5. Great Idea – however, with the government being the nation greatest employer, it would be interesting which colleges provide the greatest number at the highest paying non-political employment positions. I think that would be most helpful & illuminating

  6. Hello,
    Thanks a lot for emailing us this valuable information… It is really a kind of help that most of us needs it…
    But I think the content of this new college scorecard … is not enough and sometimes is not fair… and sometimes misleading…. because the market will never ever reveal the reality unless we make sure that the customers know the truth and giving it the priority… in their decisions making… I mean some colleges depend on their name, history, popularity… that’s why some companies hire their graduates… even if there are some other colleges that are not famous enough and have better curriculum, courses, all what this college scorecard doing is telling the truth about the colleges … to serve the community to make the right decision to choose the best college based on their financial requirements… but who said that this is the most urgent information the community needs…
    How about classifying and ranking the colleges not only based on the financial requirements, but also on the following requirements:
    · Curriculum Design and how much does it fit with the reality,
    · Courses and how much represent the curriculum,
    · Professors and how much experience they have,
    · HOTS “Higher Order Thinking Skills”, Instructional Design, and Differentiated Instructions and how much it is represented and executed in the classroom,
    · Majors, Diplomas, and Certificates… and how much all of this fit with:
    o The real reality,
    o Industrial requirements… and
    o The paradigm shift from traditional Business into Business Intelligence … and
    o How many colleges in the US Department of Education have already degrees in Business Intelligence… and
    o How much support they might get to go in that direction to help the whole humanity in promoting their Intelligence and the intelligent businesses “anything you are busy with is your Business”…..

    I am very ready to help in this direction…. BI, Inventive Problem Solving… and Critical, Creative, Innovative thinking Skills and Tools …

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